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Recently, in Zhejiang Province of China, a villager dug up the "ruby", the villagers say that from April this year, foreigners have increased recently to dug stone, however, according to some experts, the red stone dug on the mountain is actually the body pores basalt filler, the main component is silicon dioxide, due to its impurities, so the so-called "ruby" it is worthless, it's main component is silicon dioxide. 

Scientists have studied silicon dioxide. Spherically shaped amorphous silicon dioxide with broad size particle distribution was used in combination with aluminium trihydroxide (ATH) in styrene butadiene rubber composites. The pyrolysis, flammability, fire properties, flame spread and gas diffusion were investigated. The kind and amount of ATH, but in particular the fine SiO2 chosen as an additive, influenced the thermal decomposition and fire behaviour of styrene butadiene rubber composites. Gravimetric gas sorption measurements showed that the gas diffusion was systematically lower with silicon dioxide. The initial pyrolysis gas release was hindered, increasing the temperature at which decomposition begins as well as the ignition time in fire tests. During combustion, ATH and SiO2 accumulate on the surface of the specimen, forming a residual protective layer. A reduced peak heat release rate and fire spread were observed. The addition of a special kind of silicon dioxide is proposed to play a key role in optimising fire retardancy.

Interfacial adhesion between graphene and a silicon dioxide substrate is studied by density functional theory (DFT) with dispersion corrections. The results demonstrate the van der Waals (vdW) interaction as the predominant mechanism at the graphene/SiO2 interface. It is found that the interaction strength is strongly influenced by changes of the SiO2 surface structures due to surface reactions with water. The adhesion energy is reduced when the reconstructed SiO2 surface is hydroxylated, and further reduced when covered by a monolayer of adsorbed water molecules. Moreover, it is noted that vdW forces are required to accurately model the graphene/SiO2 interface with DFT and that the adhesion energy is underestimated by empirical force fields commonly used in atomistic simulations.



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