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We investigated the elemental and compositional states of silicon (Si), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and glass surfaces exposed to oxygen reactive ion etching (O2 RIE) plasma followed by storage in controlled humidity and/or ambient atmospheric conditions to understand the chemical mechanisms in the direct wafer bonding. High-resolution X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of O2 RIE treated Si, SiO2 and glass showed the presence of Si(-O)2 resulting in highly reactive surfaces.

The humidity and ambient storage of plasma activated Si and silicon dioxide (SiO2) increased Si(-OH)x due to enhanced sorption of hydroxyls. The amounts of Si(-O)2 and Si(-OH)x of Si varied in different humidity storage conditions which are attributed to crystal-orientation dependent surface morphology and oxidation. The O2 RIE plasma induced high surface reactivity and humidity induced Si(-OH)x can play an important role in the hydrophilic wafer bonding with low temperature heating.

Nano-silicon dioxide can be used in wood, the obtained composite material can maintain the original wood cell structure, appearance and workability, the timber is also improved. Nano SiO2 has good transparency, act as an important raw material can make clay coating become more dense and the surface becomes more smooth. Nano-SiO2 can be used in the ink as dispersants and flow control agents; can be used to improve the performance of packaging materials; also be used as an important material for synthetic mullite. It play an important role in skin care products, electronic assembly materials, insulation materials and sensor materials. It can even save energy and protect the environment.



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