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Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical 

formula silicon dioxide. It has been known since ancient times. Silica is most commonly found in nature as 

quartz, as well as in various living organisms. In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent 

of sand. Silica is one of the most complex and most abundant families of materials, existing both as several 

minerals and being produced synthetically. Notable examples include fused quartz, crystal, fumed silica, si-

lica gel, and aerogels. Silicon dioxide is mostly obtained by mining and purification of quartz. Quartz com-

prises more than 10% by mass of the earth's crust. This product will be suitable for many purposes while for 

others chemical processing will be required to make a purer or otherwise more suitable (e.g. more reactive or 

fine-grained) product.The major  productions are listed below:

Fumed silica, silica fume, precipitated silica, on microchips, laboratory or special methods and so on.

An estimated 95% of silicon dioxide produced is consumed in the construction industry, e.g. for the production 

of Portland cement. Other major applications were about (1)precursor to glass and silicon,(2)major component 

used in sand casting,(3)the extraction of DNA and RNA and so on.

In the majority of silicates, the Si atom shows tetrahedral coordination, with 4 oxygen atoms surrounding a 

central Si atom. The most common example is seen in the quartz crystalline form of silica silicon dioxide. In 

each of the most thermodynamically stable crystalline forms of silica, on average, all 4 of the vertices (or 

oxygen atoms) of the SiO4 tetrahedra are shared with others, yielding the net chemical formula: silicon dioxide.

Technological decisions must now be made that will substantially alter the directions along which silicon devi-

ces continue to develop. One such challenge is the need for higher permittivity dielectrics to replace silicon 

dioxide, the properties of which have hitherto been instrumental to the industry's success. 



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