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Nano-Silicon Dioxide nanomaterials are amorphous white powder, non-toxic, tasteless, non-polluting non-metallic materials. Microstructure was flocculent and mesh quasi-particle structure is spherical. This particular structure has unique properties. Nano-silica reflectance UV wavelength less than 490 nm as high as 70% to 80%, which was added to the polymer material, can reach UV and heat aging purposes. Small size effect and macroscopic quantum tunneling effect of nano-silica slurry to produce bleeding effect, can penetrate to the vicinity of the polymer chain unsaturated bond and an unsaturated bond and electron cloud effects occur, improve the thermal polymer materials, light and chemical stability, thereby improving product aging resistance and chemical resistance.

Changes suggesting that nano-Silicon Dioxide affected pathways involved in protein degradation were also evident. Alterations in the levels of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase UBR5, ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 1, heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha isoform 1 and brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 3 were found. These proteins are associated with Golgi membranes, secretory pathways and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. They are all involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR), which can be activated by aberrations in endoplasmic reticulum function leading to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins causing ER stress. The UPR is activated to maintain homeostasis by removing damaged proteins.

Like DNA damage, ER stress also activates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, so it is possible that nano-Silicon Dioxide may activate apoptosis pathways through the ER stress culminating from the UPR. However, the UPR also causes an increasing demand on the Golgi network, which was evident from the changes in proteins required for normal Golgi function, such as conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 8, and vesicular trafficking, such as rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 isoform 2 and ras-related protein Rab-5C isoform a. These responses may also be associated with activation of autophagic cell death pathways that are characterised by the accumulation of membranous vesicles in the cytoplasm.


 

 

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