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Proteomic analysis was undertaken on whole cell homogenates of A549 cells following treatment of the cells with either 100 μg/ml nano-Silicon Dioxide or vehicle (0.025% water) for 4 h in medium containing 1.25% serum (5 replicate incubations under each condition). Proteins in the samples were separated by 1D SDS-PAGE and stained with Instant blue. Each lane was then cut into a series of slices and the proteins contained in the gel pieces were digested with trypsin. The tryptic peptides produced were then analysed by LC-MS/MS. A total of 306 proteins or protein clusters were identified from LC-MS analysis of the peptides from the gel slices. The relative expression levels of the proteins present in each set of equivalent slices of the gel was then deduced using Progenesis software. The results were then combined for all of the gel slices using custom software. Nano-silicon dioxide at elevated temperatures also has excellent characteristics, such as high strength, toughness and stability.

The overall effect of treatment of the cells with nano-Silicon Dioxide on the detected proteins is illustrated in a volcano plot. In all, 47 proteins of interest were identified on the basis of statistical significance testing and these proteins were classified on the basis of their known function in biological processes. Hence, proteins involved in apoptosis regulation (9 proteins), the unfolded protein response (12 proteins), structural reorganisation and regulation of actin cytoskeleton (15 proteins), and protein synthesis (6 proteins) were recognised. The levels of some of these proteins varied substantially, the greatest fold increase being in the level of mitochondrial UCP2. This was investigated further by immunoblotting, which confirmed the increase in levels of UCP2 protein, with a 6-fold change in immunoreactivity, similar to the 8-fold increase found by proteomics.

Nowadays, nano-materials such as nano-silicon dioxide, are widely use in the biomedical field. However, nanomaterials have biological macromolecules (such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids) what the impact is currently far from clear. Nanomaterials are defined as particle diameter of nanometer (1 ~ 100nm) material. Nanomaterials exhibit many unique properties and application prospect, nano-SiO2 is a very promising industrial  nanomaterial, its has wide range of applications. 



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