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Silicon dioxide film and process for preparation of the same

A transparent amorphous silicon dioxide film containing many fine voids, characterized in that the refractive index (for light at 位=500 nm) is in the range of 1.01 to 1.40 and that 80 vol. % or more of the fine voids have a diameter of 5 nm or less, has a low refractive index and excellent physical strength such as high scratch resistance, so that it is advantageously employable as an optical film of an optical device for various uses.

Impact ionization, trap creation, degradation, and breakdown in silicon dioxide films on silicon

Degradation of silicon dioxide films is shown to occur primarily near interfaces with contacting metals or semiconductors. This deterioration is shown to be accountable through two mechanisms triggered by electron heating in the oxide conduction band. These mechanisms are trap creation and band‐gap ionization by carriers with energies exceeding 2 and 9 eV with respect to the bottom of the oxide conduction band, respectively. The relationship of band‐gap ionization to defect production and subsequent degradation is emphasized. The dependence of the generated sites on electric field, oxide thickness, temperature, voltage polarity, and processing for each mechanism is discussed. A procedure for separating and studying these two generation modes is also discussed. A unified model from simple kinetic relationships is developed and compared to the experimental results. Destructive breakdown of the oxide is shown to be correlated with ‘‘effective’’ interface softening due to the total defect generation caused by both mechanisms.



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