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According to the Bogush and Zukoski studies, five parameters play an important role in the particle size and particle size distribution of silicon dioxide nanoparticles: (i) the concentration of TEOS, (ii) the concentration of ammonia, (iii) the concentration of water, (iv) the effect of ethanol, and (v) the temperature of the reaction. In this study, the system was studied by using a continuous addition method in the sol-gel process, and the results were discussed. The main parameters and their effects on particle size are summarized in Table. 

As mentioned in Table, Figure 1 illustrates the preparation of different sizes of silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Carried out 19 experiments, three levels of each get a consistent result. Figure 1 (Samples 1, 3 and 4) represents the effect of TEOS on particle size. Figure 1 (Sample 2) shows that particles with a size of 20.5 nm (SD <1.0) are small and uniform in size under the experimental conditions of ethanol 4M, 0.045M TEOS and 14M NH3. Figure 1 (Samples 1 and 2) represents the effect of ethanol concentration on the size of the silica nanoparticles. It is also noted from Figure 1 (Sample 3) that TEOS has a monodisperse uniform size silica nanoparticle at a low concentration of 0.012 M with a standard deviation of 60.1nm (SD <3 nm or less) and observed under TEM, concentration the maximum size of particles can be obtained for 0.12 M TEOS. Under the experimental conditions of 8M ethanol and 14M NH3, the TEOS concentration varied between 0.012 and 0.12M. The size of the particles increases with increasing TEOS concentration. It is also noted that in the 4M ethanol and 14M ammonia conditions, with the increase in TEOS concentration, particle size decreased. Under this experimental condition, this may be due to the high concentration of water, as seen from Fig. 1 (Samples 5 and 6). Figure 1 (Samples 1, Figures 7 and 8) represents the effect of ammonia on the size of the silicon dioxide particles. With the increase of ammonia concentration, it can be observed that the particle size is reduced, while in batch and semi-continuous methods the opposite effect occurs.

 

 

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