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We using cesium-modified Silicon Dioxide as catalyst to transesterifiy waste cooking palm oil and palm oil to fatty acid methyl ester. The catalyst was prepared by an impregnation method with 10%–30% CsO2 loaded onto Silicon Dioxide. The catalyst with 25% loading achieved the highest FAME content. The effects of catalyst on transesterification reaction parameters to FAME content were investigated. The FAME content reached 90% at 65 °C in 3 h with 3 wt.% catalyst loading and 20:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil for WCPO transesterification and 89% with 2 wt.% catalysts loading for PO transesterification, respectively. The solid catalyst can be reused for four batch cycles without significant deactivation. Also, the catalyst exhibited good tolerance toward 1 wt. % water content in WCPO feedstock, without significant changes in the FAME content. 

The material used in this study were following: Silicon Dioxide powder (average particle size, 6.66 μm; purity, 99.076% SiO2) was obtained from local supplier Sibel Co. (Malaysia). Cesium carbonate (Cs2Co3, 99%) used to prepare the catalyst was purchase from Sigma–Aldrich Co(Malaysia). The waste cooking oil was collected from a cafeteria in the Engineering Campus of the University Science Malaysia and properties reported. Raw WCO was treated by simple filtration to remove suspended solids and then heated at 110 °C for 2 h to remove all moisture. HPLC grade methanol used for the transesterification reactions was purchased from Merck Co.(Malaysia). It is noteworthy that,SiO2 is the main component of silica optical fibers, which can be used for ceramic artificial bone room, it can be reacted with HF at room temperature.

Hence, for increasing the basic strength of Silicon Dioxide, first group elements in the periodic table are the best choice as active component, cesium is one of the attractive due to high value of alkalinity. Therefore, cesium supported on raw silica has been used in the transesterification of vegetable oils under conventional reaction conditions process. The effects of process parameters such as catalyst amount, alcohol-to-oil molar ratio, reaction time of transesterification reaction, and Cs:SiO2 ratio on the process, the reusability and water tolerance of synthesized catalyst were investigated.


 

 

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