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In terms of the structure of the silicon dioxide in the form of loose agglomerates are dispersed in the rubber matrix, namely agglomerates unruptured small modulus when subjected to hydrostatic pressure, the deformation of the silica agglomerates work required very occurrence small, then the impact of energy consumption is mainly borne by the elastic polymer; in terms of natural mineral ultrafine powder was dispersed in the form of monodisperse rubber matrix, the modulus, under the effect of hydrostatic pressure, mineral particles can not produce plastic deformation of the polymer is less than the yield stress of brittle fracture occurs. Rubber reinforcing composite aggregates shows that the polymer chains and chains of silica particles, toughening plays a key role. It must be noted, nanoparticles chain entanglement with the rubber polymer chain depends on the compatibility between the two chains. If two similar polarity chain, then entwined, the "close relative wrapped" principle. 

With silicon dioxide and carbon black, for example, both were filled with silicone rubber, carbon black reinforcing effect is minimal, and the silica-filled rubber tensile strength can be increased 40-fold. The reason is that Si-O Silastic unit repeats in the main chain, and nano-silica particles of the same Si-O, and thus silica particles polysiloxane chain being tightly wound, the reinforcing effect is better. The same nano-carbon black particles chain C-C unit and the hydrocarbon polymer main chain C-C unit, thus reinforcing carbon black unit with C-C-chain hydrocarbon-based polymers also very effective . If the non-polar silica-filled rubber, since silica easily absorb moisture, the surface of the particle-containing -OH groups, showing a weak acid, a silane coupling agent should be added, such as R "nSi (OR ') 4-n etc. started less polar silane coupling agent, and a non-polar rubber is preferably mixed, as the hydrolysis of the silane coupling agent, R "nSi (OR ') 4-n is converted to R" nSi (OH) 4-n, the polarity becomes large toward the surface of the silica particles, Si-OH group of the silane coupling agent and the condensation reaction of the surface of the particles, and the silane coupling agent R "and non-polar rubber is extremely similar nature, and promote wound, adsorption and reaction of nano silica particles and the polymer chain chain. If R "contains a sulfur atom, it is capable of reacting with the rubber molecules form chemical bonds directly, thus greatly enhancing the rubber reinforcement. This is also the coupling agent Si69 since the advent of silicon dioxide was widely used in rubber sake. Obviously, white carbon black rubber compound is not a macro, but the molecular chain beam level, the interface area is very large, it can improve the interfacial adhesion between matrix and nano-materials, reducing stress concentration, thus greatly reinforced, toughened rubber.


Rough surface of nanoparticles and nanoparticle chains with branches will have an important impact on the reinforcement of the rubber. With the use of scanning atomic force microscopy loading technology-depth study of nanoparticle chains plastic mechanics, fracture mechanics, structural science, believe that the new findings may help explain the mechanism of nano filler reinforcement.



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