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The late 20th century, many people believe that the large the surface of the silicon dioxide particles, the strong tendency the particles to aggregate, when kneading it is difficult to uniformly dispersed in the rubber. To overcome this drawback, single-dispersed nano-silica particles in the rubber matrix, it has taken the following methods.

(1) using the sol-gel technology in the polymer network generated in situ nanoparticle reinforced rubber, which is usually a rubber immersed in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) after swollen balance in the catalyst reaction, network situ nano-silicon dioxide particles. 5 times the electron microscope, nano-silica particles are dispersed evenly, almost no agglomeration; average particle diameter of only 20 ~ 30nm, are the smallest known particles of silica, was already there in the IIR, BR, SBR , NBR, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyimide, poly (methylphenyl) siloxanes, polydimethyl siloxane, epoxidized natural rubber, and so on in reported. Also it found that silica particles in the rubber TEOS generated in situ, the surface roughness of the smallest in all of the filler, and the interaction between the particles is weak, its not as good as the reinforcing effect of silica.

(2) MQ silicone resin reinforced silicone rubber. MQ silicone resin is a monofunctional siloxane unit (R3SiO1 / 4, referred to as M units) and tetrafunctional siloxane units (SiO4 / 2, referred to as Q units) one silicone resin. Is generally believed, MQ silicone resin is double compact bulb that spherical core part of the Si-O-chained, higher density and degree of polymerization of the silica cage-like 15 to 50; spherical shell portion is less dense R3SiO1 / 2 layer is disposed. MQ silicone resin reinforced with silicone rubber has two characteristics: First, before vulcanization of rubber good liquidity; Second, higher transparency of vulcanized rubber (M / Q ratio is 0 atoms 8:00, MQ silicone resin and it appears clear rubber microphase separation, the continuous phase of the rubber, the MQ silicone resin as a dispersed phase, wherein the monodisperse small dimensions, about 5nm, and more uniform), but lower than the tear strength of the silica-filled silicone rubber.

(3) hydrolysis of the silicate WPH (Wet Process Hydrophobic silicon dioxide) production of hydrophobic silica particles, i.e. made of silicate Si (OR) 4 and a surface passivating agents (e.g. bis (trimethylsilyl) amine, etc.) is hydrolyzed silica particles. Due to hydrolysis deactivators, hydroxyl silicon particles is replaced with an organic group, the growth of the particles is controlled, the specific surface area of up to 600m2 ยท g-1, the maximum particle size of 100 nm or, and narrow particle size distribution, good hydrophobicity, the tensile strength of the silicone rubber filled up to 14MPa, but the tear strength is lower than silica filled silicone rubber.



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