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The genotoxicity of Silicon Dioxide NPs was due to chromatin modification, ROS induction, and DNase liberation from the lysozyme. The cellular production of ROS can cause damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA. Studies done in female rats with Al2O3 NPs -30 nm, and 40 nm did not increase the % tail DNA in rat peripheral human lymphocytes after oral exposure. The Al2O3 NPs do not cause DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocytes when compared with the other three NPs.

The Silicon Dioxide NPs were  found to be toxic to human. The chromosomal aberration is a genetic marker to study the genotoxicity risk of human leukocytes. Alteration in the chromosome could be any changes in either the number of chromosomes or the structure of chromosome. The chromosomal aberrations like break and deletion were observed after exposed to different NPs. Chromosomal aberrations were believed to be an important aspect resulting in cell cycle arrest, and it was an important marker for cancer risk. The Co3O4 and Fe2O3 NPs were able to cause chromosome break and deletion leading to deleterious effect on humans. The penetration of metal ions into the cell causes cross-link in the DNA, sister chromatid exchange, and mutations leading to cancer risk when exposed to metal-oxide NPs.The imbalance in the ROS production when exposed to the metal-oxide NPs caused DNA damage by the oxidation of purine molecules. The metal-oxide NP-treated cells showed mitotic arrest, chromosomes break, and deletion in human lymphocytes. The results have proven that the metal-oxide NPs were able to cause DNA damage and chromosomal aberration due to the generation of ROS, which leads to cell death in human lymphocytes.

When exposed to Co3O4 NPs and Fe2O3 NPs, the human lymphocytes exhibited increase in genotoxicity when compared with Silicon Dioxide and Al2O3 NPs. The cytotoxicity and oxidative stress lead to DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. The results highlight the toxicity associated with the exposure of the NPs and suggest that proper attention needs to be paid regarding the use of the NPs since it can cause harmful effects to humans. This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 



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