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Silicon dioxide minerals are the most common mineral in the earth's crust, variety, widely distributed, and has a more crystalline forms, from single crystal, polycrystalline (including explicit and implicit crystal crystalline) are prepared to amorphous, also has a variety output mode, magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic complete. As a generalized silica stones, it is a large family, there are two series of gems and jade. This article focuses on gemstone part, that narrow silica stones.

Crystal chemical formula is SiO2(silicon dioxide), may contain Ti, Fe, Al and other elements; mineral name quartz; trigonal, hexagonal columnar crystals, cylinder with stripes; often amethyst Brazil law twinning; rich colors, glass shiny, transparent to translucent to opaque,  refractive index is 1.544-1.553, birefringence is 0.009, conchoidal fracture, toughness, Mohs hardness 7, density of 2.66g / cm3. Non-homogeneous body, a crystal axis, Masamitsu, may have a "bull's-eye" interference pattern, multicolor weak, color depth changes; examination showed enlarged ribbon, liquid and gas-liquid two-phase inclusions, gas, liquid, solid Three-phase inclusions, needle-like rutile, tourmaline and other solid mineral inclusions and negative crystal inclusions.

Crystal can be divided by color colorless crystal, amethyst, citrine, rose crystal, color crystal, green crystal, blue crystal, smoky quartz and smoky quartz, etc; according to the special optical effects and inclusion into starlight crystal, quartz cat's eye, iridescence crystal, the crystal and water bile crystal and the like.

Rock crystal: specifically refers to colorless, transparent single crystals of pure quartz(silicon dioxide), the ancient Greeks called "white water" in ancient China known as "water fine." Crystal, clear and pure, as if the gods had hidden among the crystal. Today in Europe, Japan still prevails with the "magic crystal ball" to predict the future, but people think that the ice crystals contained in the mouth has a thirst effect.



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