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Silicon dioxide class includes Furong jade, Aventurine, jasper, agate, chalcedony, etc. Crystal is a colorless and transparent quartz crystal minerals. Its main chemical is silicon dioxide, is a substance with ordinary sand. When perfect crystalline it form silica crystal; silica gelled after dehydration is agate; solidification colloidal silica water after becoming opal; silica grains at less than a few microns, on the formation of chalcedony, flint, secondary quartzite.

Amorphous body jade:

 Amorphous body jade in addition to previously talked about Opal, there are natural glass (Obsidian).

 Natural jade glass is amorphous, including obsidian and tektites Moore Road, chemical composition corresponds to the composition of granite, 60% to 75% silicon dioxide, 30% to 25% of alumina, alkali metal and iron.

 Obsidian physical properties as follows:

 1. Color: brown to black, showing markings and banded.

 2. Transparency: transparent to opaque.

 3. Luster: vitreous luster.

 4. Hardness: 5.

 5. Density: 2.40g / cm3 (2.30 ~ 2.50g / cm3).

 6. Refractive index: 1.50 (1.48 to 1.52), the single refraction.

 7. The natural glass within the common rock-forming minerals tiny crystals, ceramics and dendritic round, elongated bubbles.

 8. subspecies snowflake obsidian, on a black background with white cloth slightly wafer spots, silver and golden obsidian, with white, yellow tone brilliance.

 Obsidian widely distributed around the world, more famous origin are Mexico, New Zealand, Iceland, Hungary, Greece and the United States.

Moore Road tektites (Moldavite): its name comes from the Greek "melt", was first discovered in 1787 by Czechoslovakia Moore river, hence the name. Generally considered to be composed of quartz after meteorites fall into the atmosphere, intense burning and rapidly cooled formation. ~ It looks like yellowish green peridot, the composition and nature, Moore Road, obsidian and tektites roughly the same.

Crystal jade:

 1. microcrystalline and aphanitic class

 There are agate, chalcedony, Jasper, Tiger's-eyes and the like.

 Jade microscopic crystals were granular and short fibrous shape. Uniform structure without streaks and bands called chalcedony; the annulus, strip called agate; silt and clay minerals which contain colorful stone called jasper; was called dense fibrous wood becomes stone. The following are the various subspecies of features for a brief introduction:

 ⑴ chalcedony: the main mineral is a kind of chalcedony and opal and containing a small amount of fine particles of quartz mineral aggregates, which composed mainly of SiO2, aphanitic hardness of 6.5 and a density of 2.58 ~ 2.64g / cm3, refraction was 1.53 ~ 1.54, glass, gloss, color changes, and press the color into many subspecies: beryl with (Chrysoprase) (also known as Australian jade, British card stone), carnelian (cornelian), meat carnelian ( Sard), light green chalcedony (Prase), chromium chalcedony (Chromechalcedony) and the like.

 ⑵ Agate: a structure having stripe silica Aphanitic combination, consisting of minerals aphanitic quartz-based, sometimes with small amounts of fine particles of quartz and opal. It was massive, nodular or vein outputs. Texture agate hardness 6-7, a density of 2.60 ~ 2.65g / cm3, a refractive index of 1.53 ~ 1.54, conchoidal fracture, transparent to translucent, shiny glass.

 Agate colorful, unusual texture, has always been loved by the Chinese people, it is a traditional Chinese four treasures (jade, crystal, pearls, agate) one, so far, is still synonymous with pearl agate gem stone.

 "Thousands of agate ten thousand kinds of jade-like", since ancient times, was divided agate fine, not a divided basis. According to color, pattern and the like containing inclusions, agate generally be divided into red agate, purple agate, green agate, black onyx, white agate, onyx, sardonyx or moss agate, fire agate and agate water tank and so on.

 ⑶ jasper: jasper is chalcedony containing clay minerals, hardness of about 6.5 and a density of 2.58 ~ 2.64g / cm3, a refractive index of 1.53 ~ 1.54, translucent to opaque colors are red, yellow, green, black, etc. , arts and crafts field called liver agate stone or earth. In addition to the standard color jasper can be further divided into external (such as liver and red stone, green stone liver, etc.), as well as landscape jasper, drops of blood stone, lapis lazuli and other special varieties Switzerland.

 ⑷ Tiger's-eyes: Tiger's-eyes including tiger eye stone and eagle eye stone, tiger eye stone is yellow or brown and a variety of cat eye effect; and eagle eye stone is mainly blue tones and a variety of cat eye effect. After the original asbestos becomes pure silicon dioxide, but still retains the appearance of asbestos fibers are densely arranged fibrous assembly flat, opaque, silky luster, hardness of 6.5 and a density of 2.78g / cm3, a refractive index of 1.53 ~ 1.54. If the ground arc-shaped gem, can produce parallel movement of "cat's eye" living light.



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