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Identification of the hazardous NPs was done using in vitro toxicity tests and this study mainly focuses on the comparative in vitro cytotoxicity, genotoxicity of four different NPs including cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4), iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on human lymphocytes. The Co3O4 NPs showed decrease in cellular viability and increase in cell membrane damage followed by Fe2O3, SiO2, and Al2O3 NPs in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of exposure to human lymphocytes. The oxidative stress was evidenced in human lymphocytes by the induction of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of catalase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase. The Al2O3 NPs showed the least DNA damage when compared with all the other NPs. Chromosomal aberration was observed at 100 mg/ml when exposed to Co3O4 NPs and Fe2O3 NPs. The alteration in the level of antioxidant caused DNA damage and chromosomal aberration in human lymphocytes.

Cobalt (II, III) oxide (Co3O4), iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) are commonly used NPs with a variety of applications and even toxic to human in a dose-dependent manner.SiO2 NPs are used in the biomedical field such as DNA delivery, additives to drugs, cancer therapy, enzyme immobilization, and biosensors. Al2O3 NPs have a broad range of applications in aircrafts, ceramic industry, catalysis, biomaterials, and drugs.Silica is composed of SiO2, which common name for materials. It occurs in crystalline and amorphous forms. The 50, 100, and 200 nm sized SiO2 NPs affect the liver causing inflammation in BALB/c mice by intravenous injection.The NPs remained in spleen and liver even after 4 weeks of NPs exposure.

The silicon dioxide(SiO2) NPs were also found to be toxic to two human cell lines from the proximal tubule (Caki-1 and Hek293), so we shoule be careful. The Caki-1 cells exhibited more toxicity than Hek293 cells. SiO2 NPs in the size range of 25 nm exhibited more cytotoxic and genotoxic effect than NPs at 100 nm for both kidney cell lines. The Al2O3 NPs have been toxic to algae, bacteria, fungi, fish, plants, and mammalian cells. The NPs not only affect the human body but also cause toxic effects in aquatic system and soil microbial communities. The NPs increased the chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in plant cells.Human lymphocytes are one of the major components of the immune cells, and they play a significant role in the prooxidant and antioxidant balance of immune cell activity.



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