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Food-grade silicon dioxide(SiO2): There is increasing recognition of the importance of transformations in nanomaterials across their lifecycle, yet few quantitative examples exist. We examined food-grade silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanomaterials from its source (bulk material providers), occurrence in food products, impacts on human gastrointestinal tract during consumption, and fate at wastewater treatment plants. Based upon XRD, XPS and TEM analysis, pure silicon dioxide(SiO2) present in multiple food-grade stock silicon dioxide(SiO2) exhibited consistent morphologies as agglomerates, ranging in size from below 100 nm to > 500 nm, with all primary particle size in the range of 9–26 nm and were most likely amorphous silicon dioxide(SiO2) based upon high resolution TEM. Ten of 14 targeted foods purchased in the USA contained silicon dioxide(SiO2) of the same morphology and size as the pristine bulk food-grade silicon dioxide(SiO2), at levels of 2 to 200 mg Si per serving size.

 A dissolution study of pristine silicon dioxide(SiO2) showed up to 7% of the dissolution of the silica, but the undissolved silicon dioxide(SiO2) maintained the same morphology as the pristine silicon dioxide(SiO2). Across a realistic exposure range, pristine silicon dioxide(SiO2) exhibited adverse dose response relationships on a cell model (microvilli) of the human gastro-intestinal tract,  association onto microvilli and evidence that silicon dioxide(SiO2) leadingproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also observed accumulation of amorphous nano-SiO2 on bioflocs in tests using lab-cultured activated sludge and sewage sludges from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Nano-sized silicon dioxide(SiO2) of the same size and morphology as pristine food-grade silicon dioxide(SiO2) was observed in raw sewage at a WWTP, but we identified non-agglomerated individual silicon dioxide(SiO2) particles with an average diameter of 21.5 ± 4.7 nm in treated effluent from the WWTP. This study demonstrates an approach to track nanomaterials from source-to-sink and establishes a baseline occurrence of nano-scale silicon dioxide(SiO2) in foods and WWTPs.

Silicon dioxide(SiO2) and it's compound in food: A high efficiency solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with porous carbon nanotubes–silicon dioxide (CNTs–SiO2) nanohybrids was synthesized and applied for the determination of some organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in vegetables, fruits and water samples. Gas chromatography–corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry was used as the detection system. Glucose, as a biocompatible compound, was used for connecting CNT and silicon dioxide(SiO2) during a hydrothermal process. The electrospinning technique was also applied for the fiber preparation. The parameters affecting the efficiency of extraction, including stirring rate, salt effect, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated and optimized. The developed CNTs and silicon dioxide(SiO2) fiber presented better extraction efficiency than the commercial SPME fibers (PA, PDMS, and PDMS–DVB). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were lower than 6.2 and 9.0%, respectively. For water samples, the limits of detection were in the range of 0.005–0.020 μg L-1 and the limits of quantification were between 0.010 and 0.050 μg L-1. The results showed a good linearity in the range of 0.01–3.0 μg L-1 for the analytes. The spiking recoveries ranged from 79 (±9) to 99 (±8). The method was successfully applied for the determination of OPPs in real samples.



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