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Silicon Dioxide is an important component in tread rubber formulation, it can increase the strength of the rubber and help reduce tire rolling resistance, and low rolling resistance tires can improve fuel economy of the vehicle. Most of silicon dioxide on the market today is extracted from the ore, and the refining process itself also need to consume a lot of energy.

We found burning rice husk silica was transformed in rolling resistance comparable to other types of silica, and provide better traction in slippery roads, and this new type of silicon dioxide on the environment has many benefits, it reduces waste landfill saving energy in the process.

We also found that Silicon Dioxide can be converted directly to silicon nitride or oxynitride at the surface of Silicon Dioxide films by heating oxidized silicon wafers in anhydrous ammonia gas. At temperatures above 900°C, nitrided Silicon Dioxide films have graded composites with respect to their nitrogen fraction. This analysis was performed by AES, infrared transmittance spectroscopy, and etch‐rate profiles. Nitrided surface regions on Silicon Dioxide films, in which the nitride fraction ranged from 10% to 50%, showed remarkable masking effects against subsequent oxidation at high temperatures.

Besides, We report characteristics of the film deposited by an atmospheric pressure and low‐temperature CVD process using TEOS and ozone. Nondoped Silicon Dioxide was deposited on thermally grown oxide, silicon, and aluminum steps. The film surface was very smooth even on aluminum lines and step coverage of the films changed from isotropic to flow shape with ozone concentration increase. This is one of the largest advantages of this CVD technology and is promising for advanced VLSI device fabrication. The film has tensile stress of less than Formula , typically Formula , low enough to fabricate VLSI devices. Film shrinkage was 5% in the film deposited at the higher ozone concentration when annealed at 950°C, which was comparable to that of the conventionally deposited films. The largest thickness without any cracks varied depending on deposition conditions. A thickness of 2 μm without cracks was obtained at 400°C and 0.1 μm/min deposition rate with an ozone concentration of 4.8%. Particle generation was very low and the number of particles of more than 0.3 μm were less than 20 on a 6 in. diam wafer.



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